Monday, May 18, 2020

Overview of Mali History and Independence

Malians express great pride in their ancestry. Mali is the cultural heir to the succession of ancient African empires – Ghana, Malinkà ©, and Songhai – that occupied the West African savannah. These empires controlled Saharan trade and were in touch with Mediterranean and Middle Eastern centers of civilization. Kingdoms of Ghana and Malinkà © The Ghana Empire, dominated by the Soninke or Saracolà © people and centered in the area along the Malian-Mauritanian frontier, was a powerful trading state from about A.D. 700 to 1075. The Malinkà © Kingdom of Mali had its origins on the upper Niger River in the 11th century. Expanding rapidly in the 13th century under the leadership of Sundiata Keita, it reached its height about 1325, when it conquered Timbuktu and Gao. Thereafter, the kingdom began to decline, and by the 15th century, it controlled only a small fraction of its former domain. Songhai Empire and Timbuktu The Songhai Empire expanded its power from its center in Gao during the period 1465-1530. At its peak under Askia Mohammad I, it encompassed the Hausa states as far as Kano (in present-day Nigeria) and much of the territory that had belonged to the Mali Empire in the west. It was destroyed by a Moroccan invasion in 1591. Timbuktu was a center of commerce and of the Islamic faith throughout this period, and priceless manuscripts from this epoch are still preserved in Timbuktu. (International donors are making efforts to help preserve these priceless manuscripts as part of Malis cultural heritage.) The Arrival of the French French military penetration of the Soudan (the French name for the area) began around 1880. Ten years later, the French made a concerted effort to occupy the interior. The timing and resident military governors determined methods of their advances. A French civilian governor of Soudan was appointed in 1893, but resistance to French control did not end until 1898 when the Malinkà © warrior Samory Tourà © was defeated after 7 years of war. The French attempted to rule indirectly, but in many areas, they disregarded traditional authorities and governed through appointed chiefs. From French Colony to French Community As the colony of French Soudan, Mali was administered with other French colonial territories as the Federation of French West Africa. In 1956, with the passing of Frances Fundamental Law (Loi Cadre), the Territorial Assembly obtained extensive powers over internal affairs and was permitted to form a cabinet with executive authority over matters within the Assemblys competence. After the 1958 French constitutional referendum, the Republique Soudanaise became a member of the French Community and enjoyed complete internal autonomy. Independence as the Republic of Mali In January 1959, Soudan joined Senegal to form the Mali Federation, which became fully independent within the French Community on 20 June 1960. The federation collapsed on 20 August 1960, when Senegal seceded. On 22 September Soudan proclaimed itself the Republic of Mali and withdrew from the French Community. Socialist Single-Party State President Modibo Keita – whose party Union Soudanaise-Rassemblement Dà ©mocratique Africain (US-RDA, Sudanese Union-African Democratic Rally) had dominated pre-independence politics – moved quickly to declare a single-party state and to pursue a socialist policy based on extensive nationalization. A continuously deteriorating economy led to a decision to rejoin the Franc Zone in 1967 and modify some of the economic excesses. Bloodless Coup by Lieutenant Moussa Traorà © On 19 November 1968, a group of young officers staged a bloodless coup and set up a 14-member Military Committee for National Liberation (CMLN), with Lt. Moussa Traorà © as Chairman. The military leaders attempted to pursue economic reforms but for several years faced debilitating internal political struggles and the disastrous Sahelian drought. A new constitution, approved in 1974, created a one-party state and was designed to move Mali toward civilian rule. However, the military leaders remained in power. Single Party Elections In September 1976, a new political party was established, the Union Dà ©mocratique du Peuple Malien (UDPM, Democratic Union of the Malian People) based on the concept of democratic centralism. Single-party presidential and legislative elections were held in June 1979, and General Moussa Traorà © received 99% of the votes. His efforts at consolidating the single-party government were challenged in 1980 by student-led, anti-government demonstrations, which were brutally put down, and by three coup attempts. The Road to Multi-Party Democracy The political situation stabilized during 1981 and 1982 and remained generally calm throughout the 1980s. Shifting its attention to Malis economic difficulties, the government worked out a new agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF). However, by 1990, there was growing dissatisfaction with the demands for austerity imposed by the IMFs economic reform programs and the perception that the President and his close associates were not themselves adhering to those demands. As demands for multiparty democracy increased the Traorà © government allowed some opening of the system (the establishment of an independent press and independent political associations) but insisted that Mali was not ready for democracy. Anti-Government Rioting In early 1991, student-led, anti-government rioting broke out again, but this time government workers and others supported it. On 26 March 1991, after 4 days of intense anti-government rioting, a group of 17 military officers arrested President Moussa Traorà © and suspended the constitution. Amadou Toumani Tourà © took power as the Chairman for the Transitional Committee for the Salvation of the People. A draft constitution was approved in a referendum on 12 January 1992 and political parties were allowed to form. On 8 June 1992, Alpha Oumar Konarà ©, the candidate of the Alliance pour la Dà ©mocratie en Mali (ADEMA, Alliance for Democracy in Mali), was inaugurated as the President of Malis Third Republic. President Konarà © Wins Election In 1997, attempts to renew national institutions through democratic elections ran into administrative difficulties, resulting in a court-ordered annulment of the legislative elections held in April 1997. It demonstrated, however, the overwhelming strength of President Konarà ©s ADEMA Party, causing some other historic parties to boycott subsequent elections. President Konarà © won the presidential election against scant opposition on 11 May. Amadou Toumani Tourà © General elections were organized in June and July 2002. President Konare did not seek reelection since he was serving his second and last term as required by the constitution. Retired General Amadou Toumani Tourà ©, former head of state during Malis transition (1991-1992) became the countrys second democratically elected President as an independent candidate in 2002 and was re-elected to a second 5-year term in 2007. Source Public Domain, US Department of State Background Notes.

PTSD and Anxiety, Themes in the Film 1995 Copycat and...

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, or PTSD, is an abnormal biological response that is a consequence of direct or indirect exposure to a severely traumatizing event, which can further induce a maladaptive psychological state. This threatening life experience generally triggers a reaction of anxiety, vulnerability, or horror in the victim. In the film Copycat (1995), the protagonist, Dr. Hudson, suffers from this disorder, as well as agoraphobia and panic attacks due to a terrorizing experience she had in the past. Agoraphobia is defined as a paralyzing fear of being in spaces or settings where the sufferer feels there is neither escape nor available assistance in the event of a panic attack. In extreme cases, individuals with agoraphobia imprison themselves to places in which they feel â€Å"safe† and avoid facing unfamiliar places altogether, as these may yield heightened anxiety. The reason I chose this particular movie for this assignment is that the main character perfectly ex hibits how one abnormal disorder can produce others, and how these disorders pose a significant hindrance to one’s everyday life. Almost everyone has undergone a minor form of an abnormal condition such as a panic attack or PTSD, but this movie depicts how the most severe form of the disease affects an individual. In this movie, Dr. Hudson’s acute panic attacks are characterized by an intensified feeling of distress, and at times incapacitate her to the brink of a nervous breakdown and unconsciousness.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

This chapter will describe about the software requirements...

This chapter will describe about the software requirements and specifications of the HBScan application. This will cover about the purpose, scope, references, overall description, functional and non-functional requirements, user classes and characteristics, and operating environment. Those topics will be discuss further in next section. 4.2 PURPOSE The purport of this document is to present a detailed description of the HBScan. It will explicate the purport and features of the application, what the application will does, the constraints under which it must operate and how the application will react to external stimuli. This document is intended for both the stakeholders and the developers of the application. University students are†¦show more content†¦This application is a thoroughly independent application for Android contrivances. The application will be a lightweight and minimal application that relies on system and database information to be processed and sent to the application for displaying. The only functional dependencies are on the Google Maps API. 4.5.2 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION This section outlines the use cases for each of the active readers separately. 4.5.2.1 User Use Case 1) User use case diagram: Figure 1: User use case 2) Brief description: User can scan the barcode of the product using the scanner app and retrieve the information from the database. User also can view the information about the product. User can update the database from the internet and share it through Facebook. 4.5.3 USER CLASSES AND CHARACTERISTIC The early user will be the students of Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris who have Android devices. When the application is fully release, the scope will change to all android users. The more people using this applications, the bigger database that need to be construct. The product of this application will be only the lawful product certifie with JAKIM only. The product that not on the list will be considered as now permitted product. 4.6 OPERATING ENVIRONMENT The application will run on all current versions of the

Retributivism Vs Utilitarian Theory - 1730 Words

The concept of morality and moral â€Å"rules and laws† has as its corollary, the concept of â€Å"rule-breaking† or acting immorally. A common response to immoral behavior is punishments, which leads me to ask the question: how is punishment justified? In his article â€Å"The Classic Debate†, American legal philosopher Joel Feinberg lays out the main points of discourse between the two major theories of justified punishment, which I will deconstruct. Feinberg asserts that there are two main theories used to justify punishment: Retributivism and Utilitarianism. These two theories supposedly oppose each other such that they are mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive (Feinberg). The latter of these theories, Utilitarianism, is the main concern of this†¦show more content†¦The second thesis of pure moralistic retributivism, that moral guilt is a sufficient condition for punishment, is far more contentious (Feinber 647). One of the common counterargument s to this point which Feinberg notes is similar to the old addage â€Å"two wrongs don’t make a right†. If punishment is justified irrespective of future consequences, and it is assumed that the chosen punishment (i.e. prison time, fine) isn’t itself a good, than how can this negative action be justified if it doesn’t necessarily bring about some goodness? Retributivists often respond by using the example of sadness as a response to suffering. Neither sadness nor suffering are inherently good, but sadness in response to someone else’s suffering is uniquely appropriate (Feinberg 647). In the same way that sadness is the appropriate response to suffering or teachers grade is the appropriate response to a students performance on a test, punishment is the appropriate response to moral guilt on the basis of justice. The concept of â€Å"justice†, the assignment of action on the basis of desert alone, will become imporant later. Another critique r aised by Feinberg relates to the third thesis of pure moralistic retributivism: that punishment must be proportionate to the moral gravity of the offense. This thesis implies a number consequences which are problematic. Firstly, ifShow MoreRelatedCapital Punishment : Deontology Vs. Consequentialism1165 Words   |  5 Pages Capital Punishment: Deontology vs. consequentialism Subject: Analyze the deontological and consequentialist arguments on both sides of the issue of capital punishment in Gregg v Georgia. In this paper I will present the moral arguments of deontology and consequentialism used to determine whether or not using the death penalty was in fact constitutional. I will present both sides of the arguments and present them in the context of this trial and of similar situations where the arguments couldRead MoreTorts study notes Essay17110 Words   |  69 Pagesï » ¿ 75 Tex. L. Rev. 1801 Texas Law Review June, 1997 W. Page Keeton Symposium on Tort Law MIXED THEORIES OF TORT LAW: AFFIRMING BOTH DETERRENCE AND CORRECTIVE JUSTICE Gary T. Schwartza Copyright (c) 1997 Texas Law Review Association; Gary T. Schwartz Introduction Currently there are two major camps of tort scholars. One understands tort liability as an instrument aimed largely at the goal of deterrence, commonly explained within the framework of economics. The other looks at tort law as

IKEA Strategic Marketing Management Essay Sample free essay sample

In 1943. IKEA was founded by Ingvar Kamprad. It is a World’s prima place trappingss and largest furniture retail merchant based in Sweden. IKEA Numberss 1. 04. 000 employees in 267 shops in 45 states. Ingvar Kamprad. believes that: â€Å"Most things still remain to be done. Time is your most of import plus. Divide your life into10-minute units and forfeit every bit few as possible to futurities† ( Mclvor. Laurance. 1994: 38 ) . The corporate civilization of IKEA is built upon this doctrine all the manner from design squads to providers and to the client. A uninterrupted discord for betterment in all countries of the value concatenation is an effectual manner to determine the industry to better fit IKEA’s hereafter schemes. Due to the singularity of IKEA’s strategic placement. being the largest rival in its field. the house has the advantage of puting the stage of the industry. Bureaucracy is fought at all degrees in the organisation. Kamprad believes that â€Å"simplicity and common sense should qualify planning and strategic direction† ( Bartlett et Al. 1993: 78 ) . In add-on. the civilization emphasizes efficiency and low cost which is non to be achieved on the disbursal of quality or service. Symbolic policies such as merely winging economic system category and remain at economical hotels. using immature executives and patronizing university plans have made cost portion of corporate civilization and has farther inspired the inflow of entrepreneurship into the organisation. Where are they now?5 C ANALYSISCompanyMerchandise Line* Kitchen ware* Booming* Living room* Bedroom* Hallway* Bathroom A ; Laundry* Small storage* Cooking Market ImageAwards won by the company* Leo Burnett Hong Kong win the Grand Kam Fan for IKEA at the Hong Kong 4As Awards * IKEA ( Campaign of the Year )* IKEA ( Corporate Branding Campaign of the Year* IKEA ( Best Use of Online Media )* IKEA Honoured With Eurobest 2010 Advertiser Of The Year Award * Award by Queensland Government’s Environmental Protection Agency for IKEA’s Environmental enterprises ( 2007 ) * IKEA was named one of the 100 Best Companies for Working Mothers in 2004 and 2005 by Working Mothers magazine * ranked 96 in Fortune’s 100 Best Companies to Work For in 2006 and in October 2008 * IKEA Canada LP was named one of â€Å"Canada’s Top 100 Employers† by Mediacorp Canada Inc Culture* Diversity and creativeness* Family like Quality* Cost Conscious* Openness* Equality* Competitiveness* Eco Friendly* Social Initiative ( chief spouses to IKEA Social Initiative are UNICEF and Save the Children ) Goals of the Company* Implementing schemes in the organisation* Customer transit and C footmark* Working with providers on conformity* Communicating sustainability achievements* Integrating sustainability into nucleus concern* Forestation and usage of wood Confederate Distributors* They have 28 distribution centres in 16 states that supply to IKEA shops. * They have over 300000 distributers all around the universe Suppliers* They possess the bargaining power* IKEA prefers securing their stuffs from low cost states like China to cut down their overall cost AlliancesThe IKEA Group supports the Rainforest Alliance to advance Forest Stewardship Council ( FSC ) forest direction enfranchisement in China by educating Foresters and stakeholders on the rules of FSC enfranchisement. The undertaking provides cardinal experts with the preparation. tools and stuffs to carry on Rainforest Alliance workshops in order to increase the degree of sustainable forestry consciousness in China. Customers Market size* First shops were opened in Norway and Denmark* Germany – IKEA’s biggest market ( 45 shops )* United States ( 37 shops )* France ( 28 shops )* Presently IKEA has 316 shops in 45 states Top 5 gross revenues states* Germany 19 %* USA 11 %* United Kingdom 11 %* France 9 %* Sweden 8 % Benefits and Cost* Addition from good quality at low cost* Stylish and varied designs* Friendly atmosphere* One halt shopping RivalMerchandises* All place solutions* Kitchens. bathrooms. couch. chairs. beds and fabrics. carpets. floors. lamps. workss. and everything in between Displayed to demo design possibilities with IKEA merchandises * Assembled by the client Intratype Competition* Crate and Barrel* Pier 1* Pottery Barn* Furniture retail merchants using similar shop layouts * M. Jacobs* Ashley’s Home Furnishings* Ethan AllenIntertype Competition* Home Improvement Stores* Home Depot* Jerry’s* Department Store’s* Meier A ; Frank* Macy’s* Discount Retailers* Wal-Mart* Fred MeyersMarket portion Despite the ambitious economic state of affairs in the universe. financial twelvemonth 2009 was a good twelvemonth for the IKEA Group. The Group opened 15 new IKEA shops and entered its twenty-fifth market. with the new IKEA shop in Dublin. Ireland. Gross saless increased to 21. 5 billion Euro. which is an addition of 1. 4 per cent compared to last twelvemonth. The IKEA Group operates 267 IKEA shops in 25 states. In add-on there are 34 IKEA shops. that are owned and run by franchisees outside the IKEA Group. in 16 countries/territories SWOT Analysis on IKEA Home Furnishings Strength Brand Image* IKEA ranked 41st among the best planetary trade name around the universe in 2006 with a trade name value of $ 8. 763 * strong internationally known trade name pulling cardinal demographic client groups * strong trade names heighten client trueness and lead to reiterate purchases * Cost Efficient. Low monetary value. no via media in quality Unique concern theoretical account* they own industrial group. Swedwood. which produces wood-based furniture and wooden constituents * its operations cover every measure of production. from forestry. saw milling and board industry to furniture * efficient productions which enable it to maximise productiveness and minimise waste-generation * ain design group which can makes certain that their merchandises matches the tendency of the industry * Good relationship with providers * Maintained long-run partnerships with its providers* Ensures that the company has entree to high-quality stuffs at sensible monetary values Selling expertness* Market placement statement is â€Å"Your spouse in better life. We do our portion. you do yours. Together we save money. † * Market on its strengths – based on offering a broad scope of good designed. functional merchandises at low monetary values * Catalogue- 175 million transcripts sold in 55 editions and 27 linguistic communications ( 2007 ) * Other publicities include their seasonal gross revenues. internet trades and telecasting advertizements * Flat packaging. which reduces transportation costs. minimise transport harm. additions store stock list capacity. and makes it easier for clients to take the furniture place themselves. instead than necessitating bringing. But the original ground for it was competitory force per unit area from IKEA’s rivals to their providers. who really boycotted IKEA. coercing IKEA to make it themselves. * Easy to piece * One halt shopping* Friendly atmosphere and hive away layout* Customized Service* Restaurant in shop* IKEA issue bistro* Swede Shop* IKEA Restaurant Child Care* Supervised Rumpus room* Baby Care Room* Food Warming Facilities* Children’s Meals Design Advice* Office Planning* Kitchen Planning* Home Furnishing Advice Shop Atmosphere* Easily Located Merchandises* Browse through salesrooms and seek out merchandises* Delivery Services available or take place merchandises instantly Failing * Not enough distribution channels. For eg: There are merely three retail stores in Hong Kong * Problem of merchandise callback due to faulty base. For eg: IKEA had recalled Parodi and Apelsin glass instances * IKEA is a planetary company. so merchandise criterions are hard to keep. Some states where IKEA merchandises are made do non implement the statute law to command working conditions * Swedish designs non appealing to American clients * Limited Furniture Designs – IKEA had limited furniture designs which could evidently non provide to a broad scope of client demands and penchants Opportunity* IKEA are traveling from International to planetary position through the development of Asia and Eastern European theoretical accounts * Targets all degrees of the market. upper. center and lower categories * Sourcing from China is one chance. Sourcing from low cost states like China would cut down its costs and enable IKEA to concentrate on increasing its market portion * Bright chance of online gross revenues Menace* With economic concerns over lifting life costs and consuming disposable income there is an overall menace to the public presentation of the concern in UK and American markets specifically * The regulative environments across the Earth vary and can impact how IKEA does concern and its merchandise costs. particularly the usage of natural resources PORTER’s 5 FORCE ANALYSIS Menace of Buyers turning dickering power * There is a small power because of the bing low-price options * IKEA guarantee that their clients in all facets will be satisfied for quality service they provide * Focused their selling attack on demands and demands of the purchaser * IKEA uses their corporate duty as a good public image to their clients * IKEA Family -card as a rank Menace of Suppliers turning bargaining power * IKEA has its 1000s of providers that set criterions in presenting the stuffs. Because of the low-pricing. IKEA’s net income border besides affects the monetary values in natural stuffs than by monetary values in labour * IKEA has a broad web of 1300 providers. They carefully select the maker of its merchandises. The company has ain production mills and interior decorators which makes it less dependent on others * Dickering power of provider could be menace for the net income of the company Menace of Substitute Merchandises * There is no specific merchandise that can be a replacement for the furniture but IKEA at least. hold to maintain up with the latest tendencies. to avoid going out of manner * Problems faced due to distribution channels Menace of Intense Segment Rivalry * The IKEA’s furniture competitors’ offers different manners and functionality * Conrin targets a new low cost in footings of furniture line ; Crate A ; Barrel offers a furniture in a box which is capable in higher monetary values * Ethan Allen aimed at a more upscale market * Wal-Mart is equipped in a large box furniture that is categorized under the general shop must-have-items. but don’t have much of a manner * IKEA is the most successful in presenting the complete bundle for the clients that reflects on weak competitions * There will ever be replacements for furniture’s but IKEA competes with monetary value and there isn’t rivals in same monetary value scope Menace of New Entrants * IKEA shops do non make many little towns and this is an chance for the new rivals to travel into little and midsize metropoliss with smaller shops and less choice. But non easier in metropolis because new entrants have to set up a huge supply concatenation and make a alone trade name name * The furniture market is already extremely competitory – the hazard of new entrants is non highly high – immense capital needed to get down the concern Where do they desire to be?Their challenge and aim â€Å"It has been a ambitious twelvemonth in which we have had to accommodate to alter market conditions. † says Kerri Molinaro. President. IKEA Canada. â€Å"We know that many of our clients have less money to pass and our low monetary value construct is hence more relevant than of all time. Our clients have recognized that in tough times IKEA has the better place trappings offer. † IKEA want to increase the return on investing for its operations. which is a significant investing. and remain in front of the competition in footings of concern scheme. IKEA needs to guarantee that its concern is targeted to make people who are likely to be or go IKEA clients in footings of their demographic properties and their likeliness to go to the shop. IKEArequires a solution to maximise their return on investing while spread outing their entreaty and keeping their dominant market place. Specifically IKEA’s cardinal aims with regard to INDIA are to: * Identify mark consumer types and geographic countries for distribution of catalogue * Identify types and countries with hapless gross revenues potency* Increase gross revenues return on its operation’s outgo* Develop concern scheme How might they acquire at that place? Joint VenturesIKEA will necessitate to look at joint ventures and strategic confederations to go successful in the Indian market. Since the authorities requires that local concern operations require 51 % control by Indian subjects. IKEA’s first measure will be to happen franchise proprietors. These in bend will hold to organize confederation and joint ventures to raise adequate capital to develop the links necessary to organize a successful entity. In bad markets ( defined as those that are non similar to Norse markets ) IKEA’s local market scheme is to develop supplier links in the host state. This is meant to cut down the strategic hazard that may ensue from political. legal and fiscal issues. By developing a relationship with local providers. the providers can supply valuable input into the chances and menaces. Joint Ventures mean even more. They set up that the local owner/operators become an built-in portion of the stakeholder group. Fiscal scheme The cost of set uping a new shop ( about 22. 000 points ) is rather high when sing:* Building acquisition. layout and design* Sourcing franchise proprietors and human resources* Establishing local provider links* Advertising and publicity of the new location ( catalogues are expensive )* Stocking the new shop The advantage of borrowing money locally is that the cost of adoption will be protected from rising prices and exchange rate fluctuations. Investment money taken from militias of other operations may non transport any involvement cost and hence be a cheaper beginning of investing. In the instance of India. if IKEA decides to franchise its operations at that place. the job of financing the operation is taken attention of through franchising fees and royalties. Return of profit/royalties to IKEA of Sweden could be facilitated in the transportation of merchandise produced in India therefore increasing the fringy return from everyone involved. Net incomes Net incomes in India should be maintained at a similar degree to other states. Since the per capita income of Indian peoples is well lower than other markets. merchandise will hold to be modified to take down monetary value classs and volumes will hold to increase to countervail the difference. Except in the largest metropoliss. operation costs should be lower than Western Europe. Labor costs are well lower in India. but the IKEA shop construct requires small human resources. so cost decreases must trust on other overhead such as shop. warehousing. power. revenue enhancements and advertisement. Probably the most effectual method for cost decrease is to beginning a higher per centum of goods from India. Even Norse designs could be reproduced in India. Selling Scheme IKEA does non hold its ain fabrication installations. Alternatively. it is utilizing sub contracted makers all over the universe for supplies. All research and development activities are. nevertheless centralized in Sweden. In order to keep low cost. IKEA shoppers are Pro-sumers – half manufacturers. and half consumers. In other words. they have to piece the merchandises themselves. To ease shopping. IKEA provides catalogs. tape measures. shopping lists and pencils for composing notes and measurings. Car roof racks are available for purchase at cost and IKEA pick-up vans/mini trucks are available for rental. Effective selling through catalogues normally attracts the client at first. what keeps clients coming back is good service. IKEA believes that a strong in-stock placement which the most popular manner and design tendencies are right anticipated is important to maintain satisfied clients. For that. IKEA depends on leading-edge engineering. Harmonizing to IKEA’s logistics director. â€Å"there are a batch of Just-In-Time constructs built in to how we’re seeking to make business† ( Chandler. 1993: 12 ) . IKEA has developed its ain planetary distribution web. By using control points in the distribution rhythm. the house is able to see timely bringing of merchandises to retail shops all over the universe. Internationally. these shops range in size from 20. 000 to 30. 000 square pess in Hong Kong and in Singapore to 500. 000 square pess in Stockholm. Sweden. IKEA has over 1. 800 providers located in over 50 different states ( Retail Business. 1995: 78 ) . IKEA’s . selling director believes that Consumer gustatory sensations are unifying globally In one illustration. IKEA. which has been importing the â€Å"streamlined and modern-day Norse style† to the United States since 1985. found at least one chance to export an American manner to Europe. as Europeans are picking up on some American trappings constructs. In order to react to this new demand. IKEA now market â€Å"American style† trappingss for the European market Ad as being a manufacturer of low monetary value and high quality merchandise IKEA’s success is based on the comparatively simple thought of maintaining the cost between makers and clients down. Harmonizing to Ingvar Kamprad. the laminitis of IKEA ; â€Å"To design a desk which may be $ 1. 000 is easy for a furniture interior decorator. but to plan a functional and good desk which shall be $ 50 can merely be done by the really best. Expensive solutions to all sorts of jobs are frequently marks of averageness. † ( Chandler. 1993: 12 ) Costss are kept under control get downing at the design degree of the value-added concatenation. IKEA besides keeps costs down by packing points compactly in level standardized embalages and stacking every bit much as possible to cut down storage infinite during and after distribution in the logistics procedure ( Economist. 1994: 101 ) . IKEA direction schemeIKEA is a really successful transnational corporation. which indicates that earlier discussed focussed generic. or long-run scheme of cost leading and merchandise distinction has served it good. IKEA approaches unknown. little. high hazards markets by franchising. So this company actively expands in this field every bit good. IKEA has a batch of subordinates in many states of the universe. Franchisee shaves to transport basic points. but have the freedom to plan the remainder of the merchandises. Cultural scheme Few states in the universe have such an antediluvian and diverse civilization as India. India’s civilization has been enriched by consecutive moving ridges of migration. which were absorbed into the Indian manner of life. The diverseness lays the continuity of Indian civilisation and societal construction from the really earliest times until the present twenty-four hours. Modern India presents a image of integrity in diverseness to which history provides no analogue. Furthermore. the Indian Council for Cultural Relations ( ICCR ) has been working to project Indian civilization abroad and to convey to India the rich manifestations of international civilization. It has therefore become a major vehicle of international cultural exchange. IKEA can besides concentrate on the Indian’s procedure of development. which has been accompanied by important societal alterations and an increasing consciousness about issues. This period has besides seen the burgeoning of the voluntary motion in India. Today. the Government makes changeless efforts to advance values like democracy and independency and India is working to hold equal chances in all domains of life. We can non govern out the Indian Art. because it is besides an Art of societal. political and spiritual influences. It changed and evolved with the development of a civilisation. which is full of singular invention. Finally. IKEA can do point on Indian faith because it is another manner of life and an full portion of Indian tradition. So in making concern with India. IKEA have to do attending with the civilization and the communicating ( verbal and non-verbal ) because the communicating can be interpreted in different significances and can arouse some errors. misinterpretation and besides some problems. So. the house has to be careful with the context where it decides to put up its concern Which is the best Manner?How can they guarantee reachings?Together with advanced alterations in the value concatenation. where consumers become Pro-sumers and providers are turned into consumers. the construct of marketing high quality merchandises at low cost through a focussed generic scheme. intended for the globally emerging middle-class has served IKEA good. Centralized control and merchandise standardisation is two necessary constituents of the firm’s long-run scheme. In add-on. the company has facilitated its international enlargement through owned subordinates and franchises. Future localisation force per unit areas will coerce IKEA to alter its planetary scheme in order to go more sensitive to local demands. Greater accent on joint ventures and strategic confederations represent possible vehicles to farther construct on IKEA’s focal point scheme. A new multinational oriented organisational construction would farther supply the necessary substructure needed to b ack up such vehicles towards true internationalisation. This in bend would impact on the present homogeneous Norse civilization and present new values. thoughts and. possibly. broaden IKEA’s nucleus competences.

Cyber Bullying And Its Various Forms Essay Example For Students

Cyber Bullying And Its Various Forms Essay Cyber Bullying in its various forms is one of the fastest developing problems that many youths have to face daily. Cyber bullies tend to be motivated by several different things, from anger at their victims, to jealousy; to personal problems in their lives. Some cyber bullies attack victims for entertainment purposes or to feel some form of power. With so many aspects of technology at any given bully s disposal, cyber bullying is neither difficult nor uncommon. The foundation of cyber bullying can be primarily divided into two characteristics, personal and social. Cyber bullying is a vicious act that can destroy someone’s reputation quickly, cause severe lifelong damage and possibly death.In 2001 Dr. Tonya Nansel and several colleagues conducted and published the first US study with a nationally representative sample using an anonymous self-report questionnaire with more than 15,000 students in grades 6 through 10. Nansel and her fellow researchers stated that, within a single school term, 17% of children said they had been bullied â€Å"sometimes† 19% had bullied others â€Å"sometimes† and 6% said they had been bullied and had bullied others â€Å"sometimes† (Kowalski, Robin M., Limber, Susan P., Agatston, Patricia W 26). The 2010-2011 School Crime Supplement (National Center for Education Statistics and Bureau of Justice Statistics) indicates that 9% of students in grades 6–12 experienced cyber bullying. The 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey finds that 15% of high school students (grades 9-12) were electronically bullied in the past year. Research on cyber bullying is growing. However, because kids’ technology use changes rapidly, it is difficult to design surveys that accurately capture trends (bullyingstatistics.gov). Cyber. .eel embarrassed or uncomfortable. Understanding the warning signs can aid parents in the prevention of their children falling prey to bullies or help them to not partake in the act of bullying. Therapy and intervention are two good methods in helping to treat a child who displays symptoms of bullying. References Kowalski, Robin M., Limber, Susan P. , and Agatston, Patricia W.. Cyberbullying : Bullying in the Digital Age (2nd Edition). Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley Sons, 2012. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 22 July 2015. Feinberg, Ted, and Nicole Robey. CYBERBULLYING. The Education Digest 74.7 (2009): 26-31. ProQuest. Web. 23 July 2015. Holladay, Jennifer. CYBERBULLYING. The Education Digest 76.5 (2011): 4-9. ProQuest. 23 July 2015 . http://www.stopbullying.gov/http://www.stopbullying. gov/resourceshttp://www.bullyingstatistics.org/content/facts-on-bullying.html

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Midsummer Nights Dream Analysis free essay sample

A Midsummer Night’s Dream Essay Is it a dream or reality? The connection between the real world and a world created by our own vivid imagination while we sleep is somewhat uncanny. A plethora of individuals cannot fathom how the brain can create such realistic scenarios in such little time. In A Midsummer Night’s Dream by William Shakespeare, the author uses his knowledge of dreams to create his play. A Midsummer Night’s Dream is not only the title of this play but the overall theme as well. In the story dreams bring many changes within the plot. Dreams change the opinion of characters and open their eyes to a different reality. A large connection between dreaming and theater is made at the end of the play in Puck’s famous final speech. Midsummer also plays a large role in the theme of this play as well. We will discuss all of these topics within the next few paragraphs. We will write a custom essay sample on Midsummer Nights Dream Analysis or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page â€Å"Like dreams, love is foolish, crazy and driven by desires. † Says an article called The Meaning of the Title in  A Midsummer Nights Dream  by Shakespeare. The relationship between the four lovers, Hermia, Helena, Lysander, and Demetrius is based on their dreams and desires. When Hermia had a nightmare depicting a snake eating her heart, â€Å"Methought a serpent ate my heart away,/And you sat smiling at his cruel  play† (pg. 64-65) it foreshadowed Lysander’s newfound love for Helena which was only temporary. Lysander was casted into a figurative dream as Puck placed the love petals upon Lysander’s sleeping eyes. When Lysander awoke and Helena was the first one he saw, Lysander began to long for her and fall in love with her. This is important to the plotline because it shows what a dream can do to a person. It also helps build Puck’s character as a careless trickster. Although Helena believes Lysander’s attempts to win her heart as merely a cruel joke the reader understands Lysander is trapped in a dream. Puck then with instruction from Oberon, the King of the Faeries places the love petals in the eyes of the sleeping Demetrius to let him fall deeply in love with Helena who loves him. At the same time Puck is instructed to put these petals into Titania’s, the Queen of the Faeries eyes so that she may hopefully fall in love with an â€Å"ounce, or cat, or bear† (pg. 55). This is so that Oberon can take the Indian boy away from Titania and use him as a servant. This will solve their marital problems and bring balance back to the mortal world. Titania falls in love with Bottom, of whom which was ironically transformed by the all magical Puck into an ass. â€Å"O Bottom, thou art changed! What do I see on thee? †(pg. 75) This shows the illusions of dreams and love. Titania was in love with what she thought to be the most majestic and absolutely wonderful mortal she had ever laid eyes upon while in reality the creature she fell in love with was an ass. This also shows irony connecting the stubborn personality of Bottom and what he was transformed into. The relevance of Midsummer in the theme of the play is that many things grow in the summer, thrive. It’s a wonderful time and usually what people think of when they think of love. It is the season for life and growth as winter is for death. The nice weather drives people out of their homes and into the open outdoors. This is appropriate because people like Lysander and Hermia wouldn’t normally in winter be traveling through the woods and stop to rest. It would be too cold. The setting also portrays a summer atmosphere. It also believed that the faeries come out to trick passing travelers in the nights of midsummer. They are known to play jokes on them and to get enjoyment out of mortals. This is probably why Oberon is so interested in Helena’s despair. He must feel sorry as well as want to have a little fun with the mortals. He then instructs Puck to fix her love problem. Puck, the trickster faery is very active during this time. He plays tricks on almost everyone in the play, finding enjoyment in transforming Bottom into an ass and making Titania fall in love with him. This play is based upon love, tricks, comedy, and dreams so the faeries coming out during this time was important to the main plot and in agreement with the legend of faeries coming out during midsummer nights. Lastly Puck’s final speech shows the connection between dreaming and theatre by stating â€Å"While these visions did appear. /And this weak an idle theme,/No more yielding but a dream†(pg. 172-173). This shows us that dreams happen in order to weave the importance of the main theme of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Without the illusion that clouded Titania’s eyes she might not have fallen so deeply in love with Bottom, the ass. During the practice of the play Pyarmus and Thisbe Snout wouldn’t have noticed that Bottom had been transformed. Without the illusion of the love petals of the pansy flower Lysander might have seen through the weak shade of fake love for Helena. He would have realized his heart belonged to Hermia. Demetrius may have never moved on and loved Helena. The ending during Puck’s speech really ties together the whole play and helps us come to the conclusion that dreams were necessary for the plot and theme of the play. Puck wants us to feel as if it was all a pleasant dream, but at the same time he wants us to remember everything that happened, good and bad and learn from it. Nothing in this play is quite what it seems so it is ironic at the end to be trusting Puck who is such a tricky character. What we take from his final speech is to enjoy the happy ending and always be wary of dreams. Dreams and reality coexist in our lives as much as they do in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. We understand the theme of this play more closely if we examine key points that support the theme and title as one. Illusions and reality, Puck’s final speech, and the relevance of midsummer help us connect the title and theme. In A Midsummer Night’s Dream by William Shakespeare, the author uses his knowledge of dreams to create his play. A Midsummer Night’s Dream is not only the title of this play but the overall theme as well. As â€Å"honest Puck† (pg. 173) says before he departs â€Å"So good night unto you all. † (pg. 173) Bibliography A Midsummer Night’s Dream: Analysis of Lines 5-20 of the Epilogue.   Article Myriad. N. p. , n. d. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. lt;http://www. articlemyriad. com/midsummer-nights-dream-analysis/gt;. The Meaning of the Title in A Midsummer Nights Dream by Shakespeare Yahoo! Voices voices. yahoo. com.   Yahoo! Voices voices. yahoo. com. N. p. , 10 July 2005. Web. 25 Nov. 2012. lt;http://voices. yahoo. com/the-meaning-title-midsummer-nights-dream-6294754. htmlgt;. Shakespeare, William. A midsummer nights dream. Washington Square Press new Folgers ed. New York: Washington Square Press, 1993. Print.